What is Tourism Marketing?
In its simplest definition, tourism marketing is defined as the whole of the systematic efforts of national and international tourism organizations and businesses, both at the national and international level, to meet the needs of the tourists upon their personal wishes, and at the same time to provide their satisfaction. The desire of people to travel to a region, place or country for business, family meetings, sightseeing and entertainment, generally in order to evaluate their spare time, has also caused the phenomenon of tourism. Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that tourism enterprises have emerged in order to meet the needs of people participating in tourism activities. These businesses generally develop different methods and techniques within a certain systematic, aiming to have a holiday in the most suitable environment and in the most ideal financial conditions for tourists with consumer identity. From this point of view, tourism marketing can also be defined as all systematic efforts to create new touristic consumption needs and desires, and the flow of touristic goods or services, directly or indirectly, from the producer to the final consumer, at the local, national or international level. Based on the two definitions mentioned and the answer we gave to the question of what is marketing, it would be appropriate to summarize the concept of tourism marketing as in the following paragraph.
Accordingly, tourism marketing is a process that covers the production of special tourism products and services, offering them at the price level that they can buy, and making revisions on the service provided, taking into account the feedback from the tourist during and after the tourism activity, within the wishes and desires of the tourists that have not yet been realized. can be defined as. We can say that the biggest factor in making this definition is that the tourism industry does not only focus on the product, but it is especially for psychological satisfaction and varies from person to person. Based on the definition, the phenomenon of tourism marketing:
Saying that it is the whole of the presentation and sale of goods and services that will meet the needs of the tourist, the needs of the tourists should be constantly researched, known and customer requests should always be kept at the forefront. At the same time, tourism products or services have different characteristics from the products of industrial enterprises. At the beginning of these features, it is obvious that tourism products have the feature of complementary products. For example, it is obvious that a French tourist who will come to Turkey for a holiday, benefits from travel establishments, accommodation establishments, catering establishments and recreation establishments in a combined manner throughout the activity. Therefore, marketing efforts in tourism should be carried out collectively and complementary to each other, without focusing only on a particular product or service.
Goals of Tourism Marketing
Tourism marketing, which has many different features from product marketing in a fundamental sense, is carried out for the following purposes. These objectives can be grouped into three main groups:
- To protect the current market and to increase tourism demand in the future
- Turning the potential tourism demand in the market into real demand, that is, attracting the masses who have the opportunity to participate in the tourism event, but have not yet realized it.
- To make accessible tourism areas that have tourism potential but have not yet received the expected value. Thus, expanding the sales areas of tourism products by attracting touristic demand for other businesses or countries.
Features of Tourism Marketing
When considered on the basis of marketing, tourism marketing and product marketing efforts in industrial enterprises are similar to each other. However, it is obvious that there are some features that distinguish tourism marketing from industrial marketing. It is possible to itemize these features as follows.
- Tourism businesses are focused on service marketing on a sectoral basis. Therefore, the services provided do not have material characteristics. However, the marketing efforts of industrial enterprises are generally focused on tangible and visible products.
- In industrial marketing, the business focuses its marketing effort on its own product and in return, it engages in marketing activities with the desire to maximize profitability by increasing sales. However, marketing efforts in the tourism industry can sometimes be undertaken by government institutions, to increase the tourism potential of the region, country or region, and can be made without profit, or it can be carried out by a certain tourism business for direct sales. For example, promotional advertisements made by the state channel of Turkey, without profit; We can say that it is only for country promotion.
- Physical conditions, environment, climate and infrastructure problems are the most basic factors in tourism marketing. Therefore, the sea, sand, beach, natural beauties, history, etc. that provide tourism attractiveness. These factors are closely related to the effectiveness of the marketing effort. However, in industrial marketing, the physical conditions of the enterprise, the natural beauties of the region where it is established, the climate, etc. elements do not affect the marketing efforts of the product at all.
- In tourism marketing, distribution works in reverse. In other words, the consumer has to go to the production place to have tourism services. However, if the product produced in industrial enterprises does not reach the consumer, the marketing activity fails.
- Since production and consumption in tourism enterprises often occur simultaneously, instant efforts in tourism marketing can affect customer satisfaction. However, it is very difficult and financially impossible to make instant interventions to the marketing effort in industrial enterprises.
- As a result of product-oriented marketing efforts in industrial enterprises, the frequency of product and brand image and brand loyalty is high, while dependence on brand image is seen less in tourism enterprises.
- The demand for services produced by tourism enterprises varies many times on a daily, monthly, weekly and annual basis. Therefore, we can say that the demand is elastic. However, although the demand for the products produced by industrial enterprises is not extremely flexible, there are no extreme decreases in the daily or weekly short term.
- When the demand for the product increases as a result of the marketing efforts in industrial enterprises, it is possible to increase the production in parallel and expand the capacity. However, the increase in tourism demand increases up to a certain level in proportion to the capacity of the tourism business. For example, accommodation establishments cannot accept new customers when they reach the full occupancy rate.
- Tourism products cannot be stocked because production and consumption occur at the same time in tourism services. Therefore, tourism marketing can be risky.