What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

The Illuminati has been at the center of many conspiracy theories for many years. Emma Slattery Williams of the BBC History Unit analyzed what is known about the history of this group, which existed in the 18th century but was later disbanded, in 12 questions.

The Illuminati has been at the center of many conspiracy theories for many years. Many people who believe in these theories think that the Illuminati is behind many events in history, from great revolutions to assassinations, and is a secret and very powerful structure whose ultimate goal is to take over the world.

However, the Illuminati was founded 245 years ago and is the name given to this imaginary community at the center of conspiracy theories.

But what was the Illuminati really like? Did they control the world? We have gathered what is known about one of the most attractive and mysterious communities in history in 12 items.

1. What was the original Illuminati?
The Illuminati Order, or Illuminati, was a secret society founded by law professor Adam Weishaupt in Bavaria, which is now part of Germany.

It operated between 1776-1785. Initially, its members described themselves as “perfectionists”.

The group was inspired by the principles of the Age of Enlightenment.

Weishaupt advocated the promotion of reason and education and wanted the influence of superstition and religion to be removed from society.

Weishaupt was trying to change the way the states in Europe were governed, to remove the influence of religion on the state and to provide a new source of “enlightenment” to the people.

The first meeting of the Illuminati in Bavaria is thought to have been held in a forest near Ingolstadt on May 1, 1776. The five people who came together at this meeting determined the rules of the established secret order.

Over time, the group’s goals also tended to influence political decisions and weaken institutions such as the monarchy and the Church.

Some members of the Illuminati joined the Masons to add new names to the society.

The bird, named after Minerva, the goddess of wisdom in Ancient Rome, became the symbol of this society.

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https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/& BBC What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

2. How was the Illuminati’s relationship with the Freemasons?
The Masons are actually a fraternal society based on the guilds of medieval stonemasons and cathedral builders.

In some countries, including the USA, there has always been a certain paranoia regarding the Masons. Even a political movement, also known as the Anti-Masonic Party, emerged in the USA in 1828.

These two groups were often confused with each other, as the Illuminati recruited a large number of Masons in its early years.

3. How to become a member of the Illuminati?
For one to be accepted into the Illuminati, the consent of all other members was required.

Other requirements for membership were to be wealthy and in good standing.

Also, there was a hierarchical system among the Illuminati members.

The first entry was given the title “rookie”. After this stage, the first stage was completed as an “apprentice” and then an “enlightened” apprentice.

However, later this structure was made more complex and the completion of the membership process was increased to 13 stages.

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https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/& BBC What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

4. What kind of rituals were performed for membership in the Illuminati?
Although it is known that this building has many rituals, not all of them have come to light yet.

What is known is that its members use pseudonyms to hide their true identities.

Some documents found in the intervening time shed light on the functioning of this structure.

Rookies had to take the following steps to advance to the next level:

To prepare a report on all the books they have,
Making a list of your faults
Giving the names of your enemies.
Rookies promised to sacrifice their personal interests for the good of society prior to admission.

5. What is the all-seeing eye?
The All-Seeing Eye, a symbol resembling an eye in a triangle, is found in churches, Masonic buildings, and on the US dollar in many parts of the world.

Although this symbol is associated with Freemasonry, it is often associated with the Illuminati as a symbol of control and surveillance of the world.

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https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/ What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

The pyramid and the “All-Seeing Eye” symbol are also featured on the official emblems and coins of the United States.
This symbol actually exists in Christianity as well. The “All-Seeing Eye” is used to represent God keeping his eye on humanity. For this reason, the symbol can also be called the “Eye of God”.

However, this symbol began to be used in different ways with the 18th century. For example, this symbol is also featured in the visual depiction by Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which was adopted in the Constituent Assembly after the French Revolution of 1789.

This symbol used in the depiction of the proclamation represents a protective mind that follows the development of a newly democratized nation.

There is no official connection between this symbol and the Illuminati. This association is thought to be due to the Illuminati being likened to the Freemasons who used it as a symbol representing God, and in some cases even mixing the two societies together.

6. Has the Illuminati taken over the world?
There are people today who believe that the world is controlled by the Illuminati. These people think that the Illuminati is a very, very secret society and is known to only a few people.

It is difficult to understand how successful this structure was, since many members of the Illuminati are also affiliated with the Masonic society.

Many historians think that this society was not very effective in the times when it was active.

7. Were there famous Illuminati members?
By 1782 the society had grown to about 600 members.

Among these members were names such as Baron Adolph von Knigge of the German Royal Family, a former Freemason.

Von Knigge helped shape the organization and expansion of the society.

In its early days, only Weishaupt’s students were members of the society.

However, over time, doctors, lawyers and intellectuals of the period also joined this society.

In 1784, the number of members of the society is given between 2 and 3 thousand.

Although some sources say that the famous writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe also participated in this formation, this claim has not been proven yet.

8. Why did the Illuminati disappear?
In 1784, the Bavarian Duke Karl Theodor banned all societies not previously authorized by law, and the following year issued a second decree outright banning the Illuminati.

Suspected members of the Illuminati were arrested. During these operations, some documents, which were criminal at that time, were found, which included the details of the abortion process and defended ideas such as atheism and suicide in the suspects.

These obtained documents reinforced the group’s belief that it was a threat to both the state and the Church.

After this period, the Illuminati Order also disappeared. However, some believe it still exists.

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https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/ What is the Illuminati? The most mysterious society in history

9. What happened to Adam Weishaupt?
Adam Weishaupt was dismissed from his post at the University of Ingolstadt.

After being exiled from Bavaria, he spent the rest of his life in Thuringia-Gotha and died in 1830.

10. Why does the Illuminati legend persist?
Immediately after the Illuminati was disbanded as a society, a series of conspiracy theories began to spread about it.

French publisher and Jesuit cleric Abbé Augustin Barruel suggested in 1797 that secret societies such as the Illuminati Order spearheaded the French Revolution.

A year later, the statements of the first President of the USA, George Washington, in a letter that the threat of the Illuminati was repelled, was interpreted as a sign that this society continued to exist in secret.

Later, books and religious sermons appeared denouncing this society. Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the USA, was wrongfully accused of being a member of this society.

11. Why do people still believe in the Illuminati today?
The idea of ​​the Illuminati as an organization that dominates the world has never lost its validity and is still evident in popular culture even today.

In 1963, a text with the title “Principia Discordia” was published, aiming to create an alternative belief system under the name “Discordianism”. Among the supporters of this group, which called for anarchism and civil disobedience, was the writer Robert Anton Wilson.

Some supporters of Discordianism claimed that events such as the assassination of John F. Kennedy were the work of the Illuminati in the letters they sent to some magazines and the allegations in the content were inconsistent.

Wilson later published a cult book with Robert Shea called “The Illuminatus! Trilogy,” which inspired a new genre of conspiracy fiction such as Dan Brown’s Demons and Angels.

In time, relations were tried to be established between the Illuminati and Satanism and some other organizations.

12. What is the New World Order and how is it related to the Illuminati?
The conspiracy theory called the New World Order believes that the world is ruled by a group of elites and that many events that occur are a plan of this group.

In addition to numerous US presidents, many celebrities such as Beyoncé and Jay-Z are claimed to be members of this group. Both of these names deny the allegations against them.

Source: https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/& BBC
Photo:Getty İmages

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