What is anxiety? What are the symptoms of anxiety?

What is anxiety? What are the symptoms of anxiety?

It is considered normal to feel anxious from time to time in the hustle and bustle of life. However, the daily activities of people who experience this feeling frequently and intensely can be negatively affected.

Most of us have people close to us who are pessimistic, and perhaps we can be pessimistic too. We constantly think that bad things will happen to ourselves or our relatives, so we constantly worry about their health and make frequent phone calls. “I wonder if our child could go to school, could he have had an accident, what will I experience at work, will I be able to finish the work, will my boss be angry? Alas, I might get bad news, can I experience something bad when I go out on the street,” is a situation that may actually happen, but we overestimate this risk in our minds. If this situation disrupts our mental health and starts to affect our daily work, if it disrupts our relationship with our relatives and reduces our work efficiency, it means that it has become a disease.

In generalized anxiety disorder, known as delusional disorder, there is a state of extreme anxiety-anxiety that is present for at least 6 months and most days of the week, which the person has difficulty in controlling. Anxiety and worries are related to more than one event (such as school, work, financial situation, health of self and relatives). apprehension; Feelings of boredom-restlessness, tiring quickly, inability to pay attention, irritability, feeling of tension in the muscles and sleep disorders may also accompany. Irritable bowel syndrome and headaches may occur frequently. This problem is seen in the society at a rate of 4-7%.

What is an anxiety attack?
In whom is anxiety common?
What are the causes of anxiety?
What are the symptoms of anxiety?
What are the types of anxiety disorders?
What diseases does anxiety cause?
How is the diagnosis of anxiety disorder made?
How is anxiety disorder treated?
What should be done to prevent anxiety disorder?

What is an anxiety attack?
An anxiety attack describes a state of stress, anxiety, and fear that occurs to an overwhelming degree. In most people, this condition tends to develop gradually over time. This situation occurs especially in situations involving intense stress for people.

In the emergence of a state of anxiety in the person; Various chemical mediators (neurotransmitters) such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and gaba are thought to play a role in the transmission of information in the central nervous system. The amygdala, one of many parts of the human brain, is known as the center of fear and anxiety. In various studies conducted on people suffering from anxiety disorders, it has been determined that this part of their brain is over-activated in the face of situations that may be a source of anxiety.

In whom is anxiety common?
It is two times more common in women than men. Although the patients express “I’ve been like this since I’ve known myself”, the average onset is in their 30s. Middle age is the most common age group, then it gradually decreases.

It is more common in people who have been brought up by parents who have been behaviorally intervened a lot since childhood, who have an overprotective approach, who have a negative view of events and the environment, who show negative evaluations and reactions, and who have expectations in the form of constant harm. The risk increases in people who have more negative experiences in childhood. There is also a genetic transmission in the disease.

What are the causes of anxiety?
Anxiety disorder is a common psychiatric disorder in society. Anxiety disorder may develop in people with a genetic predisposition under the influence of combinations of various biological, physical or social factors:

Some people may develop anxiety disorder due to an underlying health problem. Anxiety can occur in heart diseases, diabetes, thyroid diseases, substance use, withdrawal from alcohol or sedative drugs, and chronic pain syndrome.

Negative experiences of childhood may appear as a cause of anxiety in the later life of the person. This situation is not only specific to childhood, but also physical or mental traumas may cause the development of anxiety disorder in adults.

In addition to these factors, personality structure, other mental health problems, financial problems, separations, and having family members with anxiety disorder among close relatives are also considered risky for anxiety disorders.

What are the symptoms of anxiety?
Many people may experience intense anxiety (anxiety) in the face of a situation they have experienced or are in at some point in their life. Anxiety can manifest itself with various symptoms that it creates in the person:

Anxiety disorder, which is one of the most common feelings in people, can be triggered by simple daily events in people suffering from this disorder. When defining this disorder, the expression of a state of anxiety that occurs most of the days and is difficult to control over a period of at least six months is used.

Anxiety can interfere with the person’s daily activities. Especially those under the age of 65 who are single and have a low socioeconomic level are considered to be a risky group for anxiety disorder.

It is the feeling of being in danger of the situation in people who suffer from anxiety disorder. There are some events triggered by this feeling to create a “fight or flight” response on the human body. These events include directing blood flow to the extremity muscles rather than the digestive system.

It is another symptom that can occur in people with anxiety disorders. Although it is diagnostically important, it may not accompany other symptoms in some patients.

Anxiety disorder can adversely affect the process of processing information about the near-term memory. Therefore, problems with concentration are another symptom that can occur in people with anxiety disorders.

In many anxiety disorder patients, a state of extreme irritability may occur, especially when anxiety reaches its highest level.

Apart from these symptoms, muscle tension, sleep-related problems, and phobias that are incompatible with reality are among the symptoms of anxiety.

What are the types of anxiety disorders?
Preoccupations about school or sports games are common in children and adolescents; older people are more worried about their own or their relatives’ health. Anxiety symptoms affect the patient more in younger age groups compared to the elderly. Children may place too much emphasis on getting things on time. Premonitions about disaster scenarios (natural disasters or war) are also common in children.

Anxiety disorders are divided into many subtypes:

People with agoraphobia anxiety, which refers to an open space or crowd-sourced anxiety, may feel negative emotions such as being trapped, needy and ashamed in addition to anxiety in such environments.

It is the state of a physical health problem that creates a feeling of extreme anxiety and panic in the person.

It is the occurrence of excessive anxiety even in routine activities and activities of the person. These feelings, which occur disproportionately according to the current situation, may be difficult for the person to control. Caution should be exercised as this type of anxiety disorder may be accompanied by other related disorders and psychiatric conditions such as depression.

It expresses the state of anxiety and fear that the individual develops when he moves away from the figure he is attached to. Apart from being away, the thought that the commitment figure will be damaged can also be a cause for concern. Various symptoms that may occur due to having nightmares and being physically affected by thoughts about this subject are among the symptoms of separation anxiety. Although this situation is usually encountered in childhood, there is a possibility that separation anxiety may continue in adult life in some people.

It is a state of intense anxiety and fear that occurs suddenly at unexpected times and reaches its peak within minutes. Depending on the situation, physical sensations such as shortness of breath, chest pain and palpitations may occur with the effect of these negative feelings, which occur at an excessive level. The fear of experiencing the same situation again can be added to the symptoms in a person who has experienced this situation once.

It is the state of children not being able to express themselves in social environments such as school, although they can communicate with other family members at home. Care should be taken as this may adversely affect education and business life.

It is a subtype of anxiety disorder that expresses the high level of anxiety that occurs in social situations, the fear of being judged by others and being humiliated.

It is the feeling of intense anxiety and fear about a particular creature, object or situation. People may turn to behaviors to avoid this factor. Fears of animals and of blood, injections, and sickness fall within the specific phobia category of anxiety disorder.

What diseases does anxiety cause?
If it starts from childhood, a person may experience a loss of self-confidence. Because individuals worry too much, their concentration can be adversely affected. Their capacity to do things quickly and effectively at work or at home may be impaired.

Since individuals are also overly concerned about the health of their relatives, they may call frequently and try to limit their lives. They worry that they will receive bad news at the door or phone ring, and they may leave these tasks to others. They may not be able to go out of the house because they may have a traffic accident, etc., and they may become dependent on the house. The fears experienced can lead to other anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and phobias) or depression.

How is the diagnosis of anxiety disorder made?
In the diagnostic approach to anxiety disorder, first of all, it is investigated whether there is an underlying health problem that may cause this situation to occur in the person. For this purpose, complete blood count, thyroid gland function tests and chemical evaluation of urine are among the laboratory tests that can be applied. In addition to biochemical analyzes, various radiological diagnostic methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), tomography (CT), electrocardiography (ECG) and chest film (X-ray) can be used when deemed necessary by the physician.

Considering the severity of the anxiety state and other accompanying psychological symptoms, it can be stated that a psychiatric evaluation of the person is necessary by the physician. During the mental examination carried out by psychiatrists, the presence of anxiety disorder can be revealed by examining whether the symptoms related to mental health and mental disorders meet the criteria for anxiety disorder in the current version of the statistical and diagnostic guide (DSM).

How is anxiety disorder treated?
Anxiety disorder can cause the formation of various biological and physiological symptoms in the person, causing the person’s daily life activities to be negatively affected. However, it should not be forgotten that; With the right intervention by professional healthcare professionals, a state of well-being can be restored in the person.

Benzodiazepine and derivative drugs can be used in the emergency response of a sudden and excessive anxiety in people.

In the treatment of anxiety, in addition to regular treatment with antidepressant derivative drugs for 1-2 years, it is necessary to change the inappropriate defense mechanisms used by the person to cope with stress and to apply therapies to change the thought schemes that cause anxiety and anxiety.

Treatment planning may include pharmacotherapy (drug therapy) alone or psychotherapy (cognitive therapy) or a combination of these two forms of therapy.

Many types of drugs can be used in the treatment of anxiety disorder. SSRI and SNRI group drugs that act on the neurotransmitter called serotonin, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, buciprone or centrally acting beta blockers are among the drugs that can be prescribed by the physician for the treatment of anxiety disorder with medication.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy that is at the forefront with its effectiveness among the techniques used for the treatment of mental disorders. In cognitive behavioral therapy, which is a form of goal-oriented therapy, the physician aims to make the person aware of the underlying beliefs and thought patterns of the situation, which is the main complaint. Thus, the person can develop new behavioral abilities and become ready for situations that may be a source of anxiety.

What should be done to prevent anxiety disorder?
With various lifestyle changes, a person can experience positive developments on anxiety disorder. Practices such as maintaining sleep patterns, doing meditation and breathing exercises, eating a healthy and balanced diet, exercising, limiting alcohol and coffee consumption, or quitting tobacco use are among the lifestyle changes that can contribute to the prevention of anxiety disorder.

Apart from these physical practices, there are also a number of mental practices that may be valuable to alleviate the impact of one’s anxiety-related thought patterns:

  • Unlike the old one, every new situation I experience should not necessarily be thought of as “it will be dangerous or difficult”;
  • Our brain should not be programmed as “If I encounter such an event, I will be very bad, I cannot cope with that situation, I will disperse”.
  • It should not be thought of as “I have faced a similar situation in the past and had very bad moments, it will be the same again”. BC in Anatolia As our compatriot Heraclitus, who lived in the 500s, said, “You cannot bathe in the same river twice”. Everything is changing. We are not that old person either, we are more experienced, we are stronger.
  • Nothing in life is all black or all white. It’s like the Southeast Asian “Ying-Yang” way of thinking. There is some white in black and some black in white”. Nothing is completely hassle free.
  • Curd cannot be eaten without pulling hard. Everything takes some effort.
  • What we feel is not always right. We must use our reason, believing only what our emotions are telling us leads us to unrealistic fears. We can meet challenges like others, we are competent like others, we have successes in the past, we can overcome them even if there are adversities.
  • The probability of the disaster scenarios we are considering is actually very low. However, by magnifying negative examples in our minds, we perceive the probability of their occurrence as excessive in our own way. In fact, the probability of encountering these situations is very low, in other words, “we almost reap the unborn child”. We get sad unnecessarily, and we create disaster scenarios in our minds unnecessarily.
  • Instead of focusing on the negative features of ourselves and our environment, we should perceive ourselves as “able to cope with difficulties” and perceive events as “surmountable” with less difficulty.
  • “I am now a parent or a business owner or I am responsible for those, I have to be an example to others, to my children. In order for them to be healthy individuals, I will not lower the sails into the water, I will stand up”.
  • We should not expect ourselves and others to be perfect, but should embrace and love everything as much as possible. Instead of “I didn’t study enough, I’ll get bad grades”, it is necessary to think “I have been able to study this much, I hope it will be enough, everything may not always be perfect, there is no end to it, no matter how hard I try, there will always be deficiencies”.
  • Our goal should be to eat grapes, we should not focus on beating the vineyard. Some negative things can come after positive events, we should not wear others or ourselves unnecessarily. As the old saying goes, “there is a good thing in every job” approach is a correct approach in some negative situations.

Source: https://www.medicalpark.com.tr

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