Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна), a country in Eastern Europe. With an area of ​​603,549 km² (576,604), it is the largest country entirely in Europe. It borders Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, and Romania and Moldova to the southwest. It also has coasts to the Black Sea and Azov Seas in the south.

The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. It became an important center of East Slavic culture with the establishment of the powerful Principality of Kiev, which formed the basis of Ukrainian identity during the Middle Ages. As a result of the division of the Principality of Kiev into various principalities and the destruction caused by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the regional unity collapsed and the region was the scene of struggles, ruled and divided among various powers such as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, and the Tsardom of Russia. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Kazakh Hetmany formed and prospered, but the hetman’s territory was eventually divided between the Polish and Russian Empires. After the Russian Revolution, the Ukrainian national movement emerged in line with the Ukrainian struggle for self-determination, and on June 23, 1917, the internationally recognized Ukrainian People’s Republic was established. After the Second World War, the western part of Ukraine was united with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the whole country became part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine gained its independence in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Following independence, Ukraine declared its neutrality; It established a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994. In 2013, after President Viktor Yanukovych’s government decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and to forge closer economic ties with Russia, a wave of demonstrations and protests known as Euromaidan began that lasted for several months and then escalated. continued, culminating in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, which led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the formation of a new government. These events set the background for the Russian annexation of Crimea in March 2014 and the Donbass War in April 2014. On January 1, 2016, Ukraine applied to the European Union to be included in the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area.

Ukraine is a developing country that ranks 74th in the Human Development Index. Along with Moldova, it is the poorest country in Europe and suffers from very high poverty rates and serious corruption. However, due to its large fertile agricultural lands, Ukraine is among the world’s largest grain exporters. It also has the third largest army in Europe after Russia and France.[18] Ukraine is a unitary republic with a semi-presidential system and the principle of separation of powers. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization and the Lublin Triangle, and is among the founding states of the CIS, although it was never a member.


With an area of ​​603,628 km² (233,062 mi²) and a coastline of 2,782 km (1,729 mi), Ukraine is the 46th largest country in the world. It is the largest country entirely in Europe and the second largest in Europe (after the European part of Russia).

In Ukraine, lowland regions (95% of the total area) dominate geographically, forming the southwestern part of the Eastern European plain. There are also mountain ranges in Ukraine. The Carpathians are home to Mount Hoverla, 2061 m above sea level and home to Ukraine’s highest peak. The highest peak of the Crimean Mountains is on the Roma-Koş Mountain (1545 m).


In ancient times, Ukraine was also called Ruthenia. Scientifically accepted, the most common view; Ukrainians, Russians, and Belorussians (Belarusians), estimated 14-16. century, they originated from the Eastern Slavic tribes. On the other hand, Soviet sources and sources accepted in the present-day Russian Federation say that Ukrainians and Belorusians came from the Russians, but 8-9. It is a fact that the representatives of the old Slavic tribes lived in the state, which was founded in the centuries, whose center was located in Kiev, the capital of modern Ukraine, and which was later called the State of Kievan Rus, and the current chronicles do not mention the name Russian or Ukrainian as a nation.

On this subject, common sources in present-day Ukraine claim that the Russians actually originated from the Ukrainians. The nation living in the old Kievan Rus State, which existed until about the 14th century, was the Ukrainians; After the Mongols arrived, most of the Ukrainians left Kiev and began to migrate northward, establishing a city called Moscow, which would later become the capital of a new state. The name of the new state, Moscow Russian State; then the Russian Tsardom and then the Russian Empire. There is also a common opinion that the nation living in Kiev and Ukraine today is a mixture of Ukrainian and Mongolian-Tatar. The Russians heavily oppressed the Ukrainians during the time of the USSR; they have intensively instilled in them the Russian culture and language. So much so that those who thought that the Ukrainians were a separate nation were imprisoned; has been put under pressure. As a result of intense pressure, the Ukrainians could not tell anyone for years that they were a separate nation and spoke a different language. After independence, the Ukrainian language became the official language, and the Ukrainian language began to be used extensively in schools and daily life.

In the 2001 Ukrainian census, the ethnic distribution was made not out of the total number of 48,457,100 people, but over the resident population of 48,241,000.

The census, which was planned to be held every 10 years, was postponed every year, and it was finally decided to be carried out in 2016 by the State Statistics Services.



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