(Russian: Росси́я, romanized: Rossiya, UFA: About this sound[rɐˈsʲijə] (help info)) or officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, romanized: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya ferrjəˈjʦrjə (UFA) help·info)) is a federal semi-presidential republic in Northern Eurasia.[10] Russia from northwest to southeast; It borders Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It is bordered by the Sea of ​​Okhotsk with Japan as a maritime border, by the Bering Strait of Alaska, a US state, and by the Black Sea with Turkey. With an area of ​​17,098,246 km², or 17,125,191 km² when the unrecognized regions of Sevastopol and Crimea are taken into account, it is the world’s largest country and covers one-eighth of the world’s living area. Russia is also the ninth most populous country in the world, with a population of 145.9 million  as of 2021. Stretching across all of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and features a wide variety of environments and landforms.

The history of Russia begins with the Eastern Slavs, who emerged as a recognized group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries.[14] The medieval state of Kievan Rus emerged, founded and ruled by the Varangians in the 9th century. In 988, Orthodox Christianity was accepted from the Byzantine Empire, and the synthesis of Russian culture, defined Byzantine and Slavic cultures for the next millennium began. Later, the Principality of Kiev was disintegrated into a series of small states, and most of its lands were invaded by the Mongols and became branches of the Golden Horde State. With the weakening of the Golden Horde State in the 15th century, the Russian principalities that declared their independence gradually reunited and established the Moscow Principality, and became the successor of the cultural and political heritage of the Kievan Principality. By the 18th century, largely through conquest, annexation, and exploration, it had become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the world’s first constitutional socialist state and World War II. He became the greatest and foremost founder of the Soviet Union, a recognized superpower that played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War Some of the most important technological achievements of the 20th century were achieved during the Soviet era, including Earth’s first artificial satellite and the first manned space flight. The Russian Federation was established in 1991 following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and is recognized as the successor of the USSR.

The Russian economy is the ninth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity. Russia has one of the world’s largest mineral and energy resources  and is one of the world’s largest oil and natural gas producers. Russia is one of the five recognized nuclear-armed states and has the world’s largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction.[24] It is also one of the great powers and is a permanent member of the UN and the UNSC, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the World Trade Organization, and a leading Commonwealth of Independent States. is a member.


With an area of ​​17,075,400 km², Russia is the largest country in the world.[11] There are 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves,[114] 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves in Russia. Russia is located between latitudes 41° and 82° N and longitudes 19° E and 169° W.

Russia has vast reserves of natural resources, including timber, oil, natural gas, coal, ore and other mineral resources.


According to the 2002 census, 79.8% of the population of Russia is composed of Russians, the main element of the federation. Apart from the Russian population, there are also many ethnic groups. It is estimated that there are 160 different ethnic groups within the borders of Russia. Although the population of Russia is high compared to other countries; The number of people per km² is very low due to the large area covered by the country. The region where the Russian population mainly lives is west of the Ural Mountains and Northwest Siberia, which are geographically considered European lands. While 73% of the country’s population lives in cities, 27% lives in rural areas. Russia is the 9th most populous country in the world in terms of population.

Although the country’s population declined after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was 141,927,297 according to the 2010 census. In 1991, the population of Russia reached an all-time high of 148,689,000[156], but the population of the country decreased in 20 years due to immigration and the rapid increase in the death rate during the 90s.[157]

The population of Russia between 1950 and 2013
In 2009, a population increase of 10,500 was achieved for the first time in the last 15 years in the country.[157] The said increase was caused by the immigration of 279,906 people to Russia, of which 93% came from the former Soviet countries. While the emigration of the Russian people was 359.000 in 2000, it decreased to 32.000 in 2009.[157] Currently, 116 million Russians live within the borders of the country, while it is estimated that around 20 million Russians live outside the country, especially in the former Soviet countries.

The birth rate in Russia is higher than the average of European countries. While the birth rate in Russia was 12.4 per thousand people in 2008, the European Union average was 9.90 per thousand people. The death rate remains very high when compared to the European Union. While the average death rate in the European Union was 10.28 per thousand , the death rate in Russia reached 14.2 per thousand according to 2009 figures. In order to prevent this situation, the government doubled the monthly child benefit to $55 in 2007, and increased the one-time payment to $9,200 per child after the second child. After these practices, Russia has now reached the highest post-Soviet birth rate.




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