Kazakhistan

Kazakhistan

Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; Kazakh pronunciation: [qɑzɑqstɑ́n]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, Qazaqstan Respublikasy), is an independent Turkic state in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan (together with Azerbaijan, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan) is one of the seven independent Turkish states today and is a member of the Organization of Turkic States and TURKSOY. With an area of ​​2,724,900 km² (as much as Western Europe), it is the ninth largest country in the world.[8] It is the largest of Muslim countries and Turkish states in terms of area and the richest in terms of natural resources. The epicenter of states such as Saka, Hun, Göktürk, Kipchak, Karakhanid, Golden Horde, which are important states of Kazakhstan Turkish history; It has been the cradle of Turkish tribes such as Kipchak, Oguz and Karluk.

Its neighbors are Russia in the north, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in the south, and China in the east. The country also has coastlines on the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea.

The population of the country, which was 16,464,464 people in 1989 towards the attainment of independence, decreased to 14,900,000 in 1999 with the immigration of Slavs and Germans from the country. In 2010, this number increased to 16,500,000 and reached 1,900,000 by 2020.

History

There has been settlement in Kazakhstan since the Paleolithic period.[10] Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic Period, as the climate and terrain conditions in the region were suitable for the nomadic lifestyle.

The Kazakh region is an important part of the Eurasian trade Steppe Route, which is the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region’s great steppes. In recent prehistoric times, peoples with various cultures such as the Proto-Indo-European Afanasiyevo culture,[11] later the Andronovo culture,[12] early Indo-Iranian cultures, and later the Saka and Massagets lived in Central Asia.[13] [14] Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Empire in the southern region of the country. In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian Army fought against the Scythians in the Battle of Jaxartes along the Jaxartes River, which stretches to the southern border of modern Kazakhstan, today known as the Syr Darya (Seyhun) River.

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Natural resources
Kazakhstan has abundant accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. The development of oil, natural gas and mineral extractions has attracted most of the foreign investment of more than $40 billion in Kazakhstan since 1993. It accounts for about 57% of the country’s industrial output (or about 13% of gross domestic product). By some estimates, Kazakhstan has the world’s second largest reserves of uranium, chromium, lead and zinc; It has the third largest manganese reserves and the fifth largest copper reserves. It is also in the top ten with its coal, gold and iron reserves. It is also a diamond exporter. It currently has the 11th largest proven oil and natural gas reserves. In total, there are 160 deposits containing over 2.7 billion tons of oil. Oil exploration has shown that the deposits on the Caspian Sea coast are only a small part of a much larger deposit. It is said that 3.5 billion tons of oil and 2.5 billion cubic meters of gas can be found in this area. In general, Kazakhstan’s oil deposits are estimated at 6.1 billion tons. However, there are only three refineries within the country located in Atyrau,[35] Pavlodar and Shymkent. They do not have the capacity to process the total crude oil production and a large part is exported to Russia. According to the US Energy Information Administration, Kazakhstan was producing about 1,540,000 barrels (245,000 m3) of oil per day in 2009.

Kazakhstan also has large phosphorite deposits. One of the largest known is the Chilisai deposit with 650 million tons of P2O5 in the Karatau basin and 500–800 million tons of ore resources in Aktobe, located in the northwest of Kazakhstan.

On October 17, 2013, the Mining Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) recognized Kazakhstan as “EITI Compliant”; this means that the country has a basic and functional process to ensure regular disclosure of natural resource revenues.

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Climate

Kazakhstan has an “extreme” continental climate with warm summers and very cold winters. As a matter of fact, the capital city Nur-Sultan is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, with winter being particularly dry.

Demography

The United States Census Bureau International Database lists Kazakhstan’s population as 18.9 million (May 2019). United Nations sources such as the 2019 revision of World Population Prospects estimate it to be 18,319,618. Official estimates show Kazakhstan’s population as 18,711 million as of May 2020. According to the Kazakhstan Statistics Agency, in 2013 Kazakhstan’s population increased by 1.7% last year to 17,280,000.[150]

The 2009 population estimate is 6.8% higher than the population reported in the last census in January 1999. The population decline that began after 1989 stagnated and likely reversed. Men and women make up 48.3% and 51.7% of the population, respectively.

Languages
Kazakhstan is officially a bilingual country. Natively spoken by 64.4% of the population, Kazakh (part of the Kipchak group family) has the status of a “state” language, while Russian, spoken by most Kazakhs, is the “official” language[161] and is routinely used in business, government, and interethnic communication. However, as of 2018, the use of Russian in the Parliament has been prohibited by President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

In January 2015, the government announced that Kazakh, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet, will gradually be switched to the Latin alphabet by 2025.[163] Other minority languages ​​spoken in Kazakhstan include Uzbek, Ukrainian, Uyghur, Kyrgyz, and Tatar. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, English as well as Turkish has gained popularity among young people.[164] In his resignation speech in 2019, Nazarbayev predicted that in the future the people of Kazakhstan will speak three languages ​​(Kazakh, Russian and English).

Source: https://tr.wikipedia.org/

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