Information about Yakutia

Information about Yakutia

Yakutia, or Republic of Sakha (Yakut: Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ Saha Örösüpübükükete), is one of the federated republics that make up Russia. Yakuts, who make up the majority of the population, are a Turkish people. The full name of the republic in Russian is written as Respublika Saha.

Sakha Republic map
The site extends to Henrietta Island in the far north and is close to the Laptev and East Siberian seas of the Arctic ocean. These seas are the coldest and icy waters in the northern hemisphere such that they are covered with ice for 9-10 months of the year. The new Siberian islands are part of the territory of the Republic of Sakha. After Nunavut was separated from the northwestern territory of Canada, the Sahara is the largest subnational entity in the world. statoid).

The republic covers an area of ​​3,103,200 km², which is one-fifth of the territory of Russia. Yakutia is the largest autonomous country in the world. Its capital is Yakutsk (Dokuuskay in Yakut). It is an autonomous republic. Yakutia is an observer member of TURKSOY (International Organization of Turkic Culture).

Population

According to the 2010 census, ethnicity:

466,492 Fields (49.9%)
353,649 Russians (37.8%)
21,080 Evenkis (2.2%)
20,341 Ukrainians (2.2%)
15,071 Evens (1.6%)
8,122 Tatars (0.9%)
7,011 Buryat (0.8%)
5,022 Kyrgyz (0.5%)

Education
Yakutsk State University is located in Yakutia. It is the only university in the country and it provides education in Russian. Famous scientists of Yakutia are:

  • Petrov Prokopiy Ustinovich: (1913-1964)
  • Sardana Oyunskaya: Sardana Platonova Oyunskaya (Ruby: Сардана Платоновна Ойунская) (6 September 1934 – 13 July 2007) was a Yakut folklorist, literary critic and philologist.
  • Zoya Konstantinovna Basharina (Template: Lang-sah) (born May 21, 1945) is a Yakut literary critic, philologist and academic, particularly known for her work in the Yakut language.
  • G. U. Ėrgis (1908-1968)
  • Kononov Konon Yevseyevich (1933-1987)
  • Robbek Liya Vital’yevna woman Icon.svg (b. 1976)
  • Savvinov Dmitriy Dmitriyevich (year of birth: 1932)
  • Seһen Bolo: (Born in 1905; year of death:1948)

History
Prehistoric Period
Siberia in particular is of paleontological importance as the Saha contains the remains of prehistoric creatures from the Pleistocene Era, preserved in ice or permafrost. For example, the frozen bodies of cave lion cubs Dina and Uyan were found in 2015. This area was also the home of another woolly mammoth from Yucca and Oymyakon, the Kolima River woolly rhinoceros, and Yukagir bison and horses. In June 2019, a large wolf head was found on the banks of the Tirekhtyakh River, which was broken off from the Pleistocene 40,000 years ago but preserved.

The Ymyakhtakh culture (circa 2200-1300 BC) is a late neolithic culture of Siberia with a very wide horizon, its origins in the Sakha in the Lena river basin, from where it spread both east and west.

Early History
It is thought that Turkic Saha people, also known as Yakuts, settled in the region at the earliest in the 9th century and at the latest in the 16th century, but it is highly probable that there were migrations to the region. Due to the pressure of the Buryats, one of the Mongolian groups, they migrated to the north from the vicinity of Lake Baikal towards the middle Lena. Small populations engaged in hunting or reindeer herding contributed to the pastoral economy of central Asia.

The Beginning of Russian Sovereignty
After the Russian tsarist defeated the Siberian Khanate, it moved eastward and began to annex the region in the 17th century. King Tygyn of Khangalassky Saha gave land for the Russians to settle in in exchange for a military pact that included fighting together against indigenous rebels in northeast Asia. However, King Kull of Megino-Khangalassky Saka initiated a Field conspiracy, allowing the construction of the first wooden curtain.

In August 1638, the Moscow government shaped the future state of Yakutsk, founded by Pyotr Beketov in 1632, by establishing a new administrative unit with the administrative center of Lensky Ostrog.

On the other hand, it is believed that the arrival of Russian settlers in the distant Russkoye Ust in the Indigirka delta dates back to the 17th century. The Siberian governorate was established in 1708 as part of the Russian empire.

In the 18th century, Russian settlers began to form a community that adopted certain Sakha traditions and is often referred to as the Yakutiane or Lena early settlers. However, from the 20th century onwards, the massive influx of later settlers assimilated them into the Russian mainstream.

Diamond mine Udatschnaja
Diamond mine Udatschnaja

Russian Empire Period
With the administrative reform in 1782, the Irkutsk governorate was established. In 1805, Yakutsk Oblast was separated from the Irkutsk governorate. In the 19th century, Yakutsk Oblast was designated as the easternmost region of the Russian Empire, including the captured Far East (pacific) regions known as Okhotsk. 1856 With the establishment of Primorskaya Oblast, the Russian regions in the pacific were separated from the Sakha.

The Russians established agriculture around the Lena river. In the second half of the 19th century, members of religious groups exiled to the Sahara started to grow wheat, oats and potatoes. The fur trade laid the foundations of the cash economy. At the end of the 19th century, at the beginning of the Soviet period, industry and commerce began to develop. This period is also the period when geological exploration, mining and local lead production began. The first steamships and barges arrived in the region.

Even when compared to the rest of Siberia, the site’s remoteness has made it a preferred place of exile for both tsarist and communist governments. Famous people exiled during the tsarist era include the democratic writer Nikolay Chernyshevsky, Doukhobor, whose story was told to Tolstoy by Vasily Pozdnyakov. Conscientious objectors include the socialist revolutionary and writer Vladimir Zenzinov, who left an interesting report on the Arctic experiences, and the Polish socialist activist Waclaw Sieroszewski, who pioneered ethnographic research on the Sakha people.

Field national movement first occurred during the 1905 revolution. The field union was established under the leadership of Vasily Nikiforov, a Field lawyer and city councilor who criticized the policies and effects of Russian colonialism and demanded representation in the state duma. The Yakut Union took action to withdraw the Yakutsk city council, and thousands of Sakha from the countryside joined in, but the movement ended in a fiasco with the arrest of the leaders in 1906. However, the demands for representation in the Duma were met positively.

Religion
Before the Russian empire, the majority of the local population was Tengrian, similar to the ancient Turkic peoples. However, while under the rule of the Russian empire, local people were urged to turn to the Russian Orthodox church and take Orthodox Christian names, but in practice, the people generally continued their traditional beliefs. During the Soviet period, many shamans died without a successor.

A pagan shamanist movement called “aiyy yeurekhé” was founded in the 1990s by a controversial journalist, Ivan Ukhkhan, and a philologist who calls himself Téris. This group and others collaborated in 2002 to build a shaman temple in the city center of Yakutsk. Currently, while Orthodox Christianity continues, there is great interest and activity in renewing traditional beliefs.

Since 2008, Orthodox leaders have defined the worldview of the indigenous population as a dual belief system or a tendency towards syncretism. As evidenced by the fact that local people sometimes continue to perform their rituals, first in connection with certain events in the life of a shaman and then an Orthodox priest.

According to the information center of the Presidency of the Sakha Republic, the religious demographics of the republic are as follows: Orthodox: 44.9%, Shamanism: 26.2%, Non-religious: 23.0%, New religious movements: 2.4%, Islam: 1.2%, Buddhism: 1.0%, Protestantism: 0.9%, Catholic : 0.4%.

According to a survey conducted in 2012, 37.8% of the Sakha population adhere to the Russian orthodox church, 13% to Tengrism or Sakha shamanism, 2% to Islam, 1% to Protestantism, 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. 1% are independent Christians. In addition, 26% of the population consider themselves atheists, while 17% state that they are not spiritual but religious. 1.8% are followers of other religions or did not answer the question.

Source: https://tr.wikipedia.org/

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