Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy, and died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642, at the age of 77. He worked in the fields of Astronomy, Physics and Mathematics and made very important breakthroughs for modern physics. It has a great place in the scientific revolution of the Renaissance Period.
Who is Galileo Galilei?
Galileo Galilei is an astronomer. He is known as the father of modern physics. He made important contributions to the development of science in the Renaissance period. He made important studies such as the telescopic study of Venus and the discovery of the moons of Jupiter. He defended the heliocentric system and wrote works on it. However, he was tried by the Inquisition and forced to renounce his ideas. He was also sentenced to house arrest.
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa in 1564. It is named after his great-great-grandfather, Galileo Bonaiuti, who was a doctor, politician and university professor, who lived in Florence between 1370-1450. Galileo in his youth with his father’s encouragement in Pisa
He started to study medicine at the university. However, Galileo, who later turned to mathematics and natural philosophy, also worked at the Accademia delle Arti in Florence and was intertwined with art. Galileo, who became the Head of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Pisa in 1589, later taught geometry, mechanics and astronomy at the University of Padova until 1610. During this period, he made many discoveries and inventions in basic and applied sciences.
Theories of Galileo Galilei and Heliocentric Theories
Heliocentric theories constitute one of the important turning points of Galileo’s scientific life. In the Galileo era, earth-centered systems were generally accepted and heliocentric systems were ignored. Nicolaus Copernicus brought heliocentric systems back into a topic of discussion. However, it was stated that the Bible supported world-centered theories and no one wanted to oppose the Papacy. However, Galileo was expressing that the heliocentric system did not oppose the Bible. He suggested that the Bible may have been misinterpreted.
However, these views of Galileo reached the Roman Inquisition. The most important accusation against Galileo was that he tried to reinterpret the Bible and was considered a stance against the Council of Trent. Upon this situation, Galileo went to Rome to defend himself, his heliocentric views and his biblical ideas. However, Rome pressured Galileo to give up and not defend his ideas. Afterwards, Galileo remained silent on the subject for 10 years. After that, he was allowed to write a book on his ideas. However, he was again found guilty of heresy by the Inquisition and sentenced to house arrest.
During this period, Galileo compiled his previous works and put forward his “Two New Sciences”. In this work, Galileo wrote explanations on kinematics and the force of matter. With this work, he is known as the father of modern physics. Galileo discovered Jupiter’s moons and named them Medici stars. However, later researchers named Galileo Moons in honor of Galileo.
In addition, by observing the phases of Venus, Galileo obtained important evidence for heliocentrism. Galileo also observed the rings of Saturn and Neptune. In addition to many astronomy studies such as the Milky Way and star observations, Galileo developed many instruments technologically. One of the most important of these is the telescope, but there is also a compass and microscope-like instrument for military use.
Little known about Galileo
- Galileo left the university in 1585 and continued his own mathematical studies. He earned money by giving private lessons.
- He was not the first to discover the telescope. The telescope was first developed by Hans Lippershey, an optician in the Netherlands.
- Galileo has 3 children. She has placed her two daughters in a nun school. His son studied medicine.
- When Galileo died, he was buried in the cemetery of the church of Santa Croce in Florence.
- The bones of one of Galileo’s fingers were taken from his tomb in the 1800s and are now exhibited in the Galileo Museum in Italy.
- The Vatican did not admit that Galileo was right until 1992.
- Galileo looked at sunspots through a telescope. This is also considered to be one of the reasons for his blindness.
- Albert Einstein’s favorite scientist is Galileo.