First Women

First Women

I keep sounding like the Liliths, Eves, Pandoras, Hypatia, Hecates, Shira who say the power is in me, that you have always accused, sinned and plotted lies and plots.

I mentioned in my previous post; The legend of Pandora’s box was written in 700 BC by the Greek didactic poet Hesiod, who wrote this story about the first woman ‘Pandora’, meaning ‘All Gifts’, for his brother in a poem called ‘Works and Days’, which he combined with the myth of Prometheus.

Before Pandora’s arrival, humanity lived free of evil, toil, and disease. Pandora, who was the first woman, whispered that Zeus opened this box/cube full of evils and curses in order to take revenge on humanity, and because of Pandora, who opened the box, all evils, namely troubles, jealousies, diseases, hunger, old age, madness, immorality, were brought to the world. is released and only Elpis Ἔλπις, ‘Hope’ or ‘Expectation’ remains inside the box.

That’s why the legend of Pandora’s box; For the ancient Greeks it is the story of the ‘Fall of Mankind’.

It is the pagan equivalent of the story of Adam and Eve’s expulsion from the Garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis (Genesis 1400).

As described in another myth, the Book of Genesis; Eve (Eve), the first woman, was created from the rib of Adam (Adam), and just like Pandora, Eve could not resist the temptation and curiosity to disobey and tasted the forbidden fruit.

Bir diğer mit olan Yaratılış Kitabında da anlatıldığı gibi; ilk kadın Eve (Havva), Adam (Adem)'ın kaburgasından yaratılmış ve tıpkı Pandora gibi Havva da, itaatsizlik etme cazibesine ve merakına karşı koyamamış ve yasak meyvenin tadına bakmıştı.

the serpent in the Book of Genesis; He tells the ‘woman’ (Eve) that he and Adam would not die if they ate from the tree of knowledge as they had been warned by God. On the contrary, eating the forbidden fruit will enable them to know good and evil, and they will become like gods. Eve’s interest in the fruits of the tree of knowledge is won by this argument, which leads them to see the fruit as a gateway to wisdom when they eat it. Again, this is very similar to the curiosity of Pandora in Greek myth.

The end of heaven is the result of both stories. Both stories share a number of important characteristics: they are both about how ‘evil’ came to be in a world previously unknown; both try to explain why one has to work hard instead of having fun; both are about the dangers of curiosity or knowing too much; and both blame Pandora/Eve, the first woman created, for allowing evil to enter the world directly (and masculine; unjustly).

Historical sources indicate that this myth derives from Sumerian, Babylonian and Mesopotamian mythology.

Tarihsel kaynaklar bu mitin Sümer, Babil ve Mezopotamya mitolojisinden türediğini gösteriyor.

In the ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, the goddess Ninti means ‘lady of the rib’ (Ti means both ‘to keep alive’ and ‘rib bone’ in Sumerian. The name Ninti means ‘lady who keeps alive’ and ‘lady of the rib bone’ ) was created by the mother goddess Ninhursag to heal Enki’s sick rib (Water god). When Enki (God of Wisdom) ate the forbidden flowers, he was cursed by Ninhursag for his disobedience. Ninti is one of the eight goddesses created by Ninhursag (Great lady, mother-goddess) to heal Enki’s body. Enki ate of the forbidden flowers and was cursed by Ninhursag for this reason. Ninhursag is persuaded by the other gods to heal him. This story was later evaluated as the source of the creation story of Adam and Eve, which was told in the Genesis (creation) part of the Torah.

The figure of Eve has been likened to dozens of prehistoric and pagan goddesses dating back to the Bronze Age, including the Hurrian goddess Khepat, the Semitic mother goddess Asherah, and even the ancient Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Like Eve, Aphrodite is often depicted with an apple in her hand. In Greek myth, the story of the Apocalypse of Paris sees the Trojan prince Paris presenting a golden apple to Aphrodite.

Thus he wins Helen of Sparta (who becomes Helen of Troy), but does not realize his fatal mistake. The seductive beauty and persuasiveness of the women in this legend sparked the Trojan War and thus hundreds of thousands of deaths.

It is important to note that these archaic legends reflect the patriarchal eras in which they were created. By today’s standards, such stories are tainted with misogyny. The common point between these narratives is that the source of all blame tends to come back to the woman each time. Typically, these fictional women are so dangerously seductive that they persuade men to make terrible and irreversible decisions. Would Paris have started the Trojan War if she had not been led astray by female beauty? Would Adam have bitten the apple if he had not accepted it from Eve?

The story of Eve had a more profoundly negative impact on women than any other mythological or biblical story. For centuries, the creation story has been used by the church and Christian society as a whole to justify patriarchal attitudes and the subjugation of women, and it still continues to be used by all sacred religions.

But the irony is that Eve is a contradiction. How can he be willfully evil and at the same time naive, stupid, and weak-willed? However, the endless, symbolic power of Eve still continues to saturate contemporary popular culture. I should even mention that considering that the first woman who could be the common ancestor of everyone was from Africa, and the first people should have been black instead of white as depicted throughout the history of western art (I wrote it like this for clarity, but I personally think that the words white-black also make a difference in people and open it up. Or I find it more appropriate to describe it as dark skin).

Many mythological narratives, devoid of the depths of scientific knowledge, attribute the origin of beings to a ‘first being’ or ‘first living thing’ similar to them; because this is the first explanation that comes to an untrained mind on the subject. Therefore, in many mythological stories it is said that at the beginning of humanity there was ‘a man and a woman’. In Abrahamic religions, the man is called ‘Adam’ and the woman is called ‘Eve’. In fact, in many narratives, it is told that the man was created before the woman and that the woman was created from the man. However, this is also wrong; because it is known that female characters evolved earlier than the male sex. (For a long time, we thought that Homo sapiens evolved 200,000 years ago, but current data put that date back by 300,000 years. And that’s when Homo sapiens as we know it evolved. Our closest cousins, the now-extinct Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals) Our evolutionary paths diverged 500,000 years ago, meaning that the earliest individuals of our species may have even lived 500,000 years ago.

The Eve figure in the popular imagination is a fusion of many female protagonists, both historical and fictional, from Jezebel and Medea to Pandora, Delilah, and Salome. All of these well-known, ‘abusive’ women have repeatedly reappeared in western art history and literature. It could be argued that such negative stereotypes surrounding images of femininity likely contributed to the persecution of ‘witches’, particularly in medieval and Renaissance Europe.

In the Hebrew Bible, Jezebel is the wife of King Ahab of Israel, who killed the prophets of Yahweh (God). Jezebel also became associated with the idea of ​​’False prophets’ and evolved into the modern term ‘Jezebel’, an insult to a ‘fallen woman’ often believed to be a prostitute. Other negative female stereotypes often combine sin with sexuality, such as Eve, who is interpreted as a seductress using her sexuality to gain power over Adam. By the 1880s, the literary device and the ‘femme fatale’ symbol were widely used to denote a sex-crazed, seductive but dangerous woman.

The legend of Lilith, a ‘femme fatale’, dates back to Mesopotamian civilizations, long before monotheistic religions.

Although the “creation” narratives in the scriptures of monotheistic religions mention Eve as the first woman, many other myths that are thought to have influenced and quoted scriptures mention another woman named Lilith, who was created before Eve as a wife to Adam. The first reference to Lilith in the world written history is the following statements in the Epic of Gilgamesh:

‘…Then an untamed snake / He built his nest in the roots of the Huluppu tree.

From the branches of the tree the Anzu-Bird brooded.

And in her body the dark maiden Lilith built her house…

Gilgamesh killed the untrainable snake.

The Anzu-Bird flew to the mountains with its cubs.

And Lilith destroyed her house and fled to wild, desolate places.’

The Epic of Gilgamesh is the story of Gilgamesh, an ancient Mesopotamian Uruk king around 2300-2900 BC. This work, which is epic, epic and myth type for us, meant a divine ‘Knowledge of the Secret’ for the Sumerians and Akkadian, that is, the Semitic civilizations. And in essence, he talks about immortality being reserved for gods only, not humans. The first to be found is Lilith, whom we encountered in this epic; an evil female spirit that dominates the night and the underworld, is referred to as `Lamashtu` in the Sumerian and Babylonian mythologies around 3500 BC, a winged demon and vampire, sometimes even the `Wind Goddess`, who abducts and eats babies and kills newborn women. Lili in Sumer; the female demon, Assyria, is in the Akkadian language used by Babylon (Semitic, that is, a civilization similar to the Arabs, the essence of Hebrew); Lili is referred to as Lilith, Spirits, Lilace means water, woman, wind, spirit, breath, and some refer to it as the goddess of the earth. In Mesopotamia, they are defined as wind spirits that carry disease, and in Hebrew it is from the root Lyle, meaning night. Hebrew, on the other hand, takes it from Sumer, Akkad, Mesopotamia, and reveals it as Lilith.

(In the ongoing events in the epics of the patriarchal Sumerian world, including the expulsion of Lilith, interestingly, the huge goddess Inanna is raped by a man. Moreover, even she cannot choose the man she will marry according to her heart, and Utu’s help to her sister is, in fact, the young girl’s adaptation to the new male laws. and to set an example for other young girls. Utu persuades Inanna to marry the Shepherd God Dumuzi, although her heart is in the Farmer’s God. Because in fact, the historical period is now the period when cattle production is male. Gilgamesh as a character becomes the goddess’s husband and ruler, uniting with Dumuzi in sacred rites.)

In the Sumerian creation story of 2000 BC, where it was first seen; Lilith, a goddess of the matriarchal period and expelled from the patriarchal Sumerian world; much later, it is also an excluded character in the texts of Kabbalah teaching. In narratives and works of art, which excludes the image of the “strong-subject” woman from social life and regards the God-state-male synthesis as a “subject to power” woman identity as “acceptable”, Lilith and Eve are the mythological figures symbolizing the opposite poles of woman identity and “morality”. figure features.

In some artworks and contemporary digital-fantastic depictions that exemplify the role of art in the service of the “gender ideology”, a connection between women and evil has been clarified with snake-woman combination figures. The male sex of the human species, which developed a property relationship with the universe, developed “sovereignty” in a more complicated way against the female, forcing the woman to become Lilith or Eve; he himself was crushed in the shadow of the unrealistic imagination of “force-power”. In the world shaped by “utility values”, “love”, whose sides cannot be free-real subjects, has become an impossible myth rather than a real one.

Lilith, a strong and independent first woman created from the earth with Adam, and Adam’s first love and first wife; Although not directly mentioned in Sumerian, Babylonian and Persian mythology, Hebrew sources, Kabbalah, Dead Sea Scrolls, Torah, in the Jewish religious source Talmud, Christianity and sometimes as a goddess, her name is still arrogant and defiant in mythological and religious texts. She is portrayed as a created woman.

We can observe that Lilith, who refused to accept the missionary position that was constantly imposed on her during sexual intercourse, and wanted to have a say in every field because she was created equal with the man, was written as a terrible first woman due to the rebellion of inequality:

It is possible to see Lilith in many different versions throughout history. The equivalents of the word Lilith in other languages ​​are close to each other. According to this; Lilith’s Babylonian Lilitu, Assyrian Lilatu, Hebrew Layla, Arabic Leyla, Syriac Leyla. The origin of Lilith, which is the chief god of Sumerian mythology, Enlil (En – God, Lil – Air) and derived from the Sumerian root “lîl” meaning “wind, breeze”, dates back to 3000 BC. Lilith; spirit, Lulu; lust, Lalu; luxury and comfort, Limnu; means evil.

Many goddesses and queen profiles such as Ishtar, Inanna, Asterte, Isis, Rhea, Artemis, Semiramis, Aphrodite, Venus, Kybele are identified with Lilith. In addition, Lamia is associated with names such as Leyla, Lilibet, Lilyel, Magda Mother, Queen of the Night, Red Sonya, Scarlet, Angel of the Night, Şahmaran, Albız, Alkarısı. Pentagram, red rose, heart, wooden stake, oak tree, red color, numbers 5 and 50 are among the symbols of Lilith.

Barbara G. Walker attributes the etymology of Lilith to the Sumerian-Babylonian word “lilu” meaning Lotus. Thus, it is possible to associate Lilith with the “tree” motif, which will be seen to be associated in all narratives and descriptions, and the Lotus goddesses of Egypt and India. M. I. Avalanche, Prof. In his explanations based on S. Kramer, he associates Lilith with the character in the Jewish legend; In the Sumerian language, “ki.sikil.lil.la”, “ki.sikil” is a young girl; that “lil” means air, spirit; thus, he states that “Lilith” gives the meaning of air, spirit. In addition, Zingsem said that the Babylonian-Assyrian word “lilitu” also fits and means “she-devil, wind ghost”; “Laila” of Hebrew [Semitic] origin [cf. He says that the word leyl-a] (night) is also associated with Lilith in traditional stories and translated as “night ghost”.

Tiamat, Shahmaran, Lamia, Ekhidna, Samael; Although her name is constantly changed, in many legends just like the Lilith legend, this first female figure, who did not want to be under the yoke of men, demanded equality and rebelled, often with long curls of red hair, sometimes a column of fire from the waist down, sometimes very attractive, beautiful and seductive. depicted as a woman, sometimes as a snake, vampire, owl. In the narratives, Lilith, by escaping from heaven and having intercourse with the devil, haunts men and children as female devils, who give birth to devils and demons, and who are created from the earth with her beauty and seductive features, kidnap and eat or kill children. In Turkish mythology, the demon named Albız, who is thought to kill postpartum women and newborn children by strangling, is also thought to be Lilith. Lilith, who escaped from heaven and came to earth in monotheistic religions, hid in a cave near the present Red Sea. He was ostracized in line with this fight for equality. She had sex with demons living in the Red Sea and gave birth to 100 children a day. Lilith’s children are depicted as demons, demons, and vampires. The reason why there is so much evil in the world is due to these children Lilith gave birth to. At the request of Adam, 3 angels were sent to be brought back to heaven. Hundreds of children were killed every day in front of their eyes to persuade him. When she was sure that she would not return, Eve was created from Adam’s rib bone so that there would be no fight for equality again. Eve is attached to Adam. Lilith could not accept this and swore to kill all children born of Eve. Rumor has it that he tried to kill boys within 8 days and girls within 20 days after they were born.

Creation myths other than the Bible, for example, 8th-11th above all. When the “I Line Alphabet”, which is known to have been formed during the 19th century, is reviewed, it becomes understandable:

‘When God created the first man, he said: ‘It is not good for man to be alone.’

And he made for her a mate from the earth, like her, whose name was Lilith. Soon

they began to fight with each other: woman to man: ‘I want to sleep under you

I don’t want to.’ And the man: ‘I want to sleep above you, not under you; because

you deserve to be the underdog and I deserve to be superior.’ Woman:

‘…we are equal; because we were both made of dust.’ (…) They refused to understand each other.

Lilith (…) pronounced that special name of God and ascended into the heavens of the earth.

Adam called out to his creator: “…the woman you gave me fled from me!” (…) God,

He sent three angels after Lilith. (…) said: ‘If he wants to go back, fine; but if he does not, he must risk witnessing the death of a hundred sons each day.’ The angels found the woman and delivered God’s words. But he didn’t want to go back. [The word used here means “not returning to lost values” in Hebrew.] They said, “We will drown you in the sea!” Woman: ‘Leave me alone; because I only weaken children: I am commanded to watch over boys from their birth to their eighth day, and girls from their birth to their twentieth. (see Zingsem, 2007: 36-37. See also “Alphabet of Ben Sira”)

We see the Lilith narrative, which affects every field of art like myths, in Fuzuli’s Leyla ile Mecnûn masnavi. In addition to her innocence, Sumerian and some other sources also have an influence on Layla’s innocence, as well as her commemoration with darkness and night. In post-Islamic classical mathnawis, the fact that Leyla drove Mecnûn mad, causing her to lose her mind, is related to the war of tribes for her, and the transformation of Lilith into the figure of Leyla.

Another thing attributed to Lilith is that she got into women’s minds and reminded them that they were “equal to men”, which is why she is considered the first feminist.

In fact, Lilith is also responsible for the original sin. It is none other than Lilith in the form of a serpent who tricked Eve and told her to eat the forbidden fruit.

“God protect you from evil women; And protect yourself from good women!” In this Jewish proverb, which claims that “Woman” is a dangerous being that should be avoided in any case, interestingly, “bad woman” seems to evoke Lilith and “good woman” seems to evoke Eve. Although widely known in the West, Lilith, which is much less known in Eastern societies, and Eve, the mother of humanity, are actually mythological figures symbolizing the opposite poles of women’s specific identity and the “morality” burdened on women by patriarchal society.

It seems that both in the period when the four holy religions were valid – extending to the present day – and in the period before that, the female identity, which could be symbolized by Lilith, was excluded from the earth where social life continued; An image of “Eve” (which will be reinforced with the image of the “Virgin Mary” as time progresses) that is “subjected” to a power that combines God-state-male was deemed “acceptable”. Notice that what is recommended and sanctified in all scriptures and stories is “sovereignty”. First of all, the domination of “human” over all earthly beings; and in coordination, the dominance of the male gender over the female gender… While the narratives emphasize the superiority of the male and his central role in the universe, they also tend to highlight the secondary, criminal and therefore the punished role of the woman. After all, the eating of the “forbidden fruit” (which is thought to symbolize sexuality, and thus the transition to the process of subjectivation and culture) and the transition from paradise (from the eternal and comfortable life) to the ascetic life, were all because of women. In all the paintings depicting this scene, there is a figure of a “snake-woman” (Lilith) holding out the forbidden fruit to Eve, which completely connects the story with the argument that Adam is a pure victim, woman with both identities as “evil and hypocrite” It creates a justification for holding women responsible for all the misfortunes she has suffered, and establishes the legitimate ground for hindering women’s social-sexual-religious-political-economic freedom for thousands of years. On the one hand, God makes the snake and woman enemies (associated with the image of Lilith -as well as with the phenomenon of the phallus in the Freudian view-). (See the Bible: Genesis: Chapter 3) It determines the rules and principles of life and relationships on earth. Adam-woman-snake regulates earth-nature relations. Accordingly, Adam refers to the “fruit of knowing” (“the fruit of knowing”, especially “knowing”, may be considered a reference to sexuality. Besides all the notations that may be relevant, for example, in Genesis: Chapter 4, “Adam knew his wife Eve; and by being pregnant, Cain He gave birth to “(with a connotation that associates the concepts of sexuality, reproduction of the species, production, subjectivation with the images of tree-fruit-snake-phallus-Lilith-Eve), that is, he will suffer the burden of “participating in the life cycle”, he will possess Eve and ” He will always beware of the “Snake”. For, the serpent is not only an inevitability of the agricultural life (the soil) with which he will be in constant contact, and a desire to yearn for it as an image of the life cycle, but also a villain that must be avoided in order not to lose his possession of Eve. Thus, the male-female relationship is buried in a paradox both in the subconscious and at the conscious level; In fact, man, who tries to shape his cultural life by fighting his “hairy instinct” by controlling sexuality, has created the manifest of the settled-patriarchal order of the earth at the expense of his own nature.

In the confusion created by his inability to make healthy distinctions between “supreme values” and “utility values”, “Adam” will oscillate in the void like an acrobat with no purpose in the rope stretched between two extremes, killing love, the only supreme value in which the human essence is crystallized, with an orientation to appropriation (! ) will lose his freedom and subjectivity in the order (regulation) he validates with his status quo approach, he will burn love every time with his “political” stance, he will apply his own tendencies and tensions to Lilith, whom he once embraced with passion and love, and worse. will slander him. He will not be contented, but will denigrate both women’s identities; will be dominant but lacking.

Unless the relationship of dominance evolves into a relationship of “equality”, not in an agreement procedure, but unless “equality” really matures and empowers in the self, no one will be able to feel or know love in a real sense.

Love, in which spirit and skin melt together in its fire and form the talisman of being “human”, is perhaps the most appropriate concept to define human; It is a phenomenon that will help people to establish their relationship with people and everything with a healthy dialectic. However, it is shaped by “benefit values”; with an unrealistic imagination of strength-power, the man strayed from humanity and ceased to be himself; In a world where it is impossible to talk about the free self of the oppressed woman, her being a real subject, the imaginary rather than the reality of “love”; Despite their shocking appearance, it can only be mentioned that they are impossible and only a myth.

Finally, the mythogenic society has started to realize a mythology in its daily life with these stories it has knitted, and is a disobedient, naive, weak-willed, inclined to seduction and evil, disloyal, unreliable, deceitful, seductive by the nature of the female sex, whose main motivation is self-interest. turned to “moral” sanctions with the widespread belief that it is a genus; all religions and customs have attempted to subjugate women under the pretense of “morality”; He set maxims that subordinate women in social life, with frameworks that can be exemplified by many quotations in sacred texts.

Strong women have been defamed throughout history and have always been found dangerous. The fact that women are strong scared and continues to frighten everyone who is not strong in character.

Again, Lilith is the first example of these.

Hecate

Hekate

Her earliest appearance in literature was in Hesiod’s Theogony in the 8th century BC as a great goddess of honor with domains in the sky, earth, and sea. Its origin is debated by scholars, the ancient city of Lagina in Turkey is the main cult center of the goddess. Although the origin of the Hecate cult points to Anatolia, this issue is still being discussed. The places where Hecate was most worshiped in Anatolia are West Phrygia and Caria. Among these regions, we see that the oldest cult and the largest sanctuary is Lagina in the Caria region. The fact that one of the most important works of the Diadokhos period, the successors of Alexander the Great, was made for this goddess, is an indication of the importance of the goddess for the people of the region. In addition, it is stated that the temple of the goddess is used as a symbol of peace, and it would be difficult to find such supportive information for a god/goddess in any region. All findings show that Hecate is a goddess of Anatolian and Carian origin. Its origin in Anatolia dates back to BC. It goes back to the Bronze Age 3000 BC. The round altar in Miletos Apollon Delphinion is also found. The cult of Hecate here, BC. It is understood from the inscriptions from later periods that it continued until 78/77. Along with Apollo, in Didyma, the temenos was revered as a “Phosphoros” (bearing bright light) as the protector of the monumental sacred entrance.

The largest known sanctuary, temple and altar for the cult of Hecate is located only in Lagina. This greatness was thanks to the prestige of the cult of Hecate, an Anatolian goddess, in the region and the people of the region. This place has also been considered as the center of fortune telling.

Hecate, who is said to have the origins of magic and witchcraft on earth, is a Titan goddess with a mysterious personality who is not related to the gods of Olympus. Although Zeus is wary of the Titans because they are very powerful gods, he loves, respects and favors Hecate very much. According to etymological studies, Hecate does not fit Greek.

In fact, Heate is an Anatolian goddess and an imitation of Artemis of Ephesus, which reflects a certain quality and is called by another name. He is descended from the gods known as the solar nobles among the titans. Although it is accepted that he is of Carian origin, there is no comprehensive research yet. Hecate remains unfamiliar with Greek religion and myths; While it is not mentioned in Homer’s books, forty-six lines of praise are written in Hesiod’s Thegonoia.

It is variously associated with crossroads, entryways, doorways and building entrances, fertility, night, light, moon, magic, witchcraft, herbs and poisonous herbs, ghosts, necromancy (enchantments with the spirits of the dead), and witchcraft.

While Hecate (ancient Greek), written by Hesiod, was an infinitely powerful and respected goddess, again with Christianity, it became associated with evil as the healing and healing aspects of witchcraft and sorcery were ignored…

Hecate is often depicted as three statues back to back on the same pedestal, in triple form. This triple form of Hecate; The young girl, the young mother, and the old wise woman are associated with all three phases of femininity. Sometimes she is depicted as a three-faced woman, that is, the three aspects of time; It is associated with the past, the present and the future, and the three states of existence: birth, life and death. There are also references to different sides and different personalities of Hecate. With its connotation to multiple personality disorder (I hope that talking about personalities as a disorder will change in the future as humanity becomes enlightened); There are similarities to Demeter with her abundance distribution, Artemis with her impulsiveness, Niks with her dark and mysterious nature, Selene with her relationship with the moon, and even Nemesis, who is known for her revenge and justice. Because of this tripartite structure, the Romans called it Trivia. Trivia literally means ‘three ways’. junctions, junctions and associated with the entries. In ancient times, there were statues of Hecate at crossroads. It was believed that the statues of Hecate, located both at the entrances of the houses and at the city entrances, kept the evil spirits away. People used to put food at these intersections, especially during the full moon, and since this food is eaten by poor or marginalized people, it is also seen as a protector of the marginalized. Hecateion is a terminology used among archaeologists for its three-sided form (Artemis-Selene-Hecate). It is also the inspiration for the Statue of Liberty in New York.

“Give me your weary, poor, gathered masses longing to breathe freely, give me the miserable garbage of your overflowing shore. Send these to me, homeless, stormy me, I raise my lamp by the golden door!” Perhaps the streets of NY were filled with the homeless with this prophecy.

“Bana yorgun, zavallı, özgürce nefes almaya hasret toplanmış kitlelerinizi verin, dolup taşan kıyınızın sefil çöplerini verin. Bunları bana gönder, evsizler, fırtınalı bana,  altın kapının yanında lambamı kaldırıyorum!” Belki de NY sokakları bu kehanetle evsizlerle doluydu.

Triple Hecate statue in Antalya Museum. The statue from the Roman period is dated to the 3rd century AD, made of marble.

Various symbols such as dog, deer, lion, bull, horse, snake, polos, half moon, torch, dagger, apple, pomegranate, spear, key, whip, etc., are found on statues, amulets, seals, frieze and reliefs that characterize Hecate. . In addition, the dog was considered sacred in ancient Persia. The dog especially belongs to the moon goddess and is the main sacrificial animal of the goddess Hecate and has a lunar character. The moon goddesses of Babylon, Egypt, and Syria are similar to Astarte, Isis, and Ishtar. In Anatolia, on the other hand, it has developed and continued since the Hellenistic Age. In the Roman Imperial period, on the reverse side of the coins of the City of Stratonikeia, she was depicted as sitting on a running animal with a lion’s head and a dog’s tail, wearing a waving headscarf. Hecate is also seen as the goddess of the dark moon and is said to be accompanied by dogs howling at the moon. He is depicted as a three-headed dog in the shape of the moon’s dog. The three-headed dog, owned by Hades, the ruler of the underworld, and guarding the underground gate where the dead are found, is associated with Hecate in Kerberos and is honored with her howl. The dark time of the Moon is the moment when magical powers and black magic and evil become out of control. The heads in the form of lions, horses and dogs attributed to the goddess clearly symbolize the three-part year of ancient times. In fact, Kerberos is “Sirius the Dog Star” himself. The torch is the symbol of Artemis. However, in the 5th century, she gained the identity of the moon goddess like Artemis with the epithet “Hecate Purphoros” and was recognized with the torch.

In Greek culture, it was believed that Hecate helped the night travelers with a torch in dark times. That’s why he holds a torch in most of his depictions. We understand the importance of Demeter by helping and guiding Demeter with torches to search for Persephone. Another important attribute is the key. We know that it was in Hecate’s hands to guard, open and close Hades’ door. As a symbol of the key and lock goddess, it symbolizes the door of the deceased’s new home in the underworld. For this reason, gates were built in the name of Hecate in the holy areas. In ancient times, key-bearing festivals called “Hekatesia-Romania” were held in honor of the goddess Hecate. The snake is a sacred animal in most cultures. In terms of meaning, it is the tool of immortality, giving life to the mysterious cycle of nature, keeping up with the change of life. The snake symbol was used medicinally, especially in ancient civilizations and the Greeks. Also, the snake has an association with witchcraft and the moon. Apple and pomegranate were symbols of fertility and fertility in the Ancient Age and were always attributed to a goddess. The apple is one of the attributes of Hecate, who ruled over life and death. Pomegranate, on the other hand, is a very common plant species, and Kybele, Demeter, Athena and Hera are goddesses depicted with a pomegranate in their hands.

It has three holy symbols; The key, the dagger, and the string are also frequently used items in witchcraft, since he knows the secrets of the earth and the nether world. The dagger also represents judgment and justice as a weapon.

As a mythological identity, she is the daughter of night and darkness. Another feature of Hecate is to lead souls to the underworld, namely Hades, and it was believed that she held the key to the door to the underworld. On the other hand, Hecate is shown heavier, more serious, and even more brutal than the god Hermes, who guides the dead to the underworld.

In general, every Titan has a certain temperament, but Hecate’s character is believed to have changed over time. The reason for this can be seen as the fact that while the healing spells initially had a healing feature, later on, with the association of magic, witchcraft, and the devil, our good goddess began to be called an evil goddess later on.

Hypatia

Hypatia

Teaching Hypatia in Alexandria, Robert Trewick Bone, 1790-1840

Hypatia, a mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, who was stoned, stripped naked, cut to pieces and burned because there was a woman in Alexandria University and its library, said in 400 AD:

‘Don’t stop doing what you believe is right, even if no one else thinks as you do.’

Considered the first woman philosopher and scientist in history, Hypatia was born in Alexandria, North Africa, between 350 and 370. Hypatia was born as the 2 daughters of Theon of Alexandria, who is considered to be the last professor of Alexandria University. She was interested in science as her father did, but went beyond what he did and became interested not only in science but also in philosophy.

While raising her daughter, Theon had pearled into Hypatia these two mindsets: ‘All dogmatic religions are full of errors and should not be taken as the final truth by a self-respecting person, and you must always exercise your right to think. Because it is better to think wrong than not to think at all.’

When Hypatia gets a little older she travels the world and stays in Rome and Athens for a while. The Athenian philosopher takes lessons from the neoplatonist Plutarch. Hypatia, who later spent her whole life in the city where she was born, managed to lead a very free life, unlike the women of her contemporaries, she was able to travel to various parts of the city with her two-wheeled car, she was able to meet with the prominent officials and administrators of the city, and while the other women were busy with housework and raising children, she was scientific and philosophical. He succeeded in educating students by interpreting the texts. Students from Africa flocked to Alexandria just to be Hypatia’s students. Particularly interested in Plato and Aristotle’s philosophy, he aimed to explain Plato’s philosophy, and as a result of his studies, he was called a Neo-Platonist. Hypatia, who is very famous for her beauty as well as her intelligence, has been mentioned as having the intelligence of Plato and the beauty of Aphrodite. Although the princes and philosophers proposed marriage to Hypatia, perhaps he did not find any of them equal to his mind, and he always rejected the proposals, saying “I am married to the truth”.

Years later, Hypatia added what she learned from her father to what she learned and wrote:

“Tales should be told as fairy tales, and legends as legends. There is nothing more terrifying than teaching superstitions as truth. The child’s mind accepts these and the child believes the wrong things. It is very difficult to get rid of these false beliefs, it takes many years. People believe in superstitions as if they are facts and fight for it. They even fight harder for superstition, because superstition is so intangible that it is almost impossible to refute.”

At the time of Hypatia’s life, the city of Alexandria had very advanced research facilities compared to other parts of the world. 500,000 manuscripts in the city library and the Museum building in the region created a very convenient environment for research, many scientists and students from all over the empire flocked to the city to get their share from this favorable environment. It is said that during the reign of Julius Caesar, there were 750,000 volumes in the Library of Alexandria, chief among them all Greek literature from its inception to that day, and countless science books. The mathematician Euclid (Euclid BC-300), whom we all know very well, lived in this center. The Library of Alexandria was famous for its school of philosophy, its museum, and more importantly for its broad-minded teaching, which we call “eclectic.”

The new Platonic tradition dominated the Alexandrian eclectic school. This school was open to all, no matter what faith or philosophical style they had. Not perceiving differences as an element of conflict, but various

So, when we look at the scientific evidence of the first emergence of man, how did the constructive, fertile and fertile matriarchy evolve so that the woman found herself being abused at the lowest level, as the destructive patriarchal system, which was possessive and domineering, was developed over time?

Peki bilimsel olarak insanın ilk çıkış tarihi kanıtlarına baktığımızda yapıcı, doğurgan ve bereketli Anaerkil düzen nasıl bir evrim geçirdi ki kadın, zaman içerisinde mülkiyetçi ve egemenlik hırsındaki yok edici ataerkil sistem geliştirildikçe, en alt kademesinde istismar edilirken kendini buldu?

The Venus of Willendorf is associated with people in the Gravettian culture, which arose about 30,000 years ago and dispersed throughout Europe.

What happened that the woman experienced this upheaval?

Initially, because of the woman’s fertility feature, the first human societies blessed the woman. The milk flowing from the woman’s breasts had a miraculous feature as a ready-made food at a time when the food source was very difficult to obtain; At the same time, it was seen as a miracle that the woman’s body would expand and shrink again, that she could pull out a new body, that her body was regenerated by bleeding in certain periods. The emergence of a new life from the female body, its ability to nourish it with milk; In addition, the protective effect of milk against diseases has made women special in the face of men. The innate bodily differences of women gave women an advantage over the bare features of the male body. Seeing the creator of humanity as the “mother”, that is, the woman who gives birth

understandable because of these features. Thus, the belief in the cult of the Mother Goddess arose.

For thousands of years, the woman who has tried to be dethroned from the Mother Goddess status – in the masculine order – tried to be abused and imprisoned in the houses, resisted despite everything and we see the traces of this in every history.

The types of women in the ancient works reveal the perspective of the Greek world on women. In particular, it is seen that they take their subject from mythology. Because monotheistic religions and myths, which have influenced many cultures, can be said to be the ‘DNA of the cultural phenomenon, which contains cultural riches that can tell the story of the coming of humanity to the present day. Myths express tens of thousands of years of social experience, cultural accumulation, emotion, fear and acceptance as the products of the social unconscious. Therefore, myths are not dead words that have survived to the present day without being changed word for word;

on the contrary, it is like an organism that carries something from every community and culture in which it lives, that changes and develops as it lives. In addition to influencing cultures and societies, they are also affected by the society and culture in which they live. Therefore, the culture and life of a society can be partially understood by looking at the myths.

Theno (600-550 BC)

Theno (M.Ö. 600-550)

Sappho

Sappho

Amazons

Amazonlar

In detail on this 2nd century AD sarcophagus, an Amazon and Greek engage in a deadly battle. A: Louvre Museum, Paris.

Although Amazons are seen as imaginary heroines, new archaeological findings show us that they may have lived in reality and that they are a continuation of the matriarchal order and a feminist people due to their lifestyles.

In the 1940s, archaeologists studying Scythian settlements in Ukraine, Southern Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia excavated burial mounds called kurgans. Previous excavations of these Scythian burials have uncovered skeletons, most of them female, as evidenced by DNA, buried with spears, axes, arrows, and horses. About a third of the Scythian women found in the tombs to date have been discovered with their weapons. They bore the marks of war wounds, such as a split rib, cracked skull, and broken arm. About 300 war-wounded skeletons were identified as women, and these women were buried, like Scythian men, with their arrow holsters, battle axes, spears, and horses. More detailed studies of the Scythian culture revealed an egalitarian way of life. As a member of a nomadic tribe that rides horses and shoots arrows, all children, boys and girls, would be taught these skills from a young age. Regardless of gender, Scythians wore similar clothing, such as tunic and trousers, which facilitated hunting and horseback riding.

Aspasia

Aspasia

Source: https://onedio.com/Nermin Erol https://evrimagaci.org/
https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kad%C4%B1n_Matematik%C3%A7ilerhttps://www.idildergisi.com/makale/pdf/1376582830.pdf;
https://artuk.org/discover/stories/from-the-garden-of-eden-to-killing-eve-deconstructing-the-first-woman-in-art#;  https://www.academia.edu/44554345/HYPATIANIN_I%C5%9EI%C4%9EINDAN_B%C4%B0ZE_YANSIYANLAR;  http://blog.lizzelizzel.com/2011/11/03/the-lilith-past-andpresent/;
http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org;
http://jewishchristianlit.com;
https://www.academia.edu/43458011/Hypatian%C4%B1n_Ya%C5%9Fam%C4%B1;
https://www.academia.edu/44646943/Antik_Yunanda_Hekate_K%C3%BClt%C3%BC;
https://www.academia.edu/27020029/Hypatia_The_First_Female_Mathematician_Scientist_and_Philosopher;
https://www.academia.edu/37158549/Antik_Yunanda_kad%C4%B1n_Betimlemeleri_ve_Kad%C4%B1n%C4%B1n_Sosyal_Stat%C3%BCs%C3%BC_pdf; http://www.gnosis.org/lilith.htm;
http://www.culture.gouv.fr; http://mllechabine972.skyrock.com/;
http://www.kevinchristman.com;
https://www.yoair.com/tr/blog/anthropology-an-analysis-of-matriarchal-societies-and-their-culture/;
https://dspace.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12575/33408/sedef_kapanoglu.pdf?sequence=1; https://dspace.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/

 

 

 

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