Australia, or officially the Commonwealth of Australia (English: Commonwealth of Australia), is a continental country located in the Southern Hemisphere. It lies between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It is located in the continent of Oceania and occupies a very large part of the continent. Its neighbors are Indonesia, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and New Zealand. Its capital is Canberra and its largest city is Sydney.

Australia is established on a total area of ​​8,698,850 km2, of which 8,617,930 km2 is on land and 80,920 km2 is in water. It has no land borders with any country. Being the 6th largest country in the world with this surface area, Australia has a coastline of 25,760 kilometers.

Indigenous Aboriginal people have hosted the island for about 50,000 years, before the discovery and migration of Europeans in the 18th century. The languages ​​spoken by the Aborigines are divided into approximately 250 different groups according to the calculation made as a result of modern research. Forced immigration, initiated by the United Kingdom with criminal deportation, continued from 1788 to 1868 and concentrated around New South Wales. Since the first settlement years, the population has increased steadily and the entire island has been discovered in the middle of the 19th century, and 5 new Royal colonies have been established. On January 1, 1901, 6 colonies united to become a federal structure and formed the Commonwealth of Australia. Adopting the liberal-democratic political system since its establishment, Australia consists of 6 states and relative territories. The majority of the population of 24 million is settled on the east coast and it is a country with a high urbanization rate.

According to the International Monetary Fund, while Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world, it ranks 9th in the world in terms of per capita income.  The country also ranks second in the Human Development Index after Norway in many criteria such as living standards, health, education, personal freedom and political rights. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, OECD, World Trade Organization, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation and Pacific Islands Forum.


The name Australia is derived from the Latin word Australis, which means belonging to the south. The meaning of an unknown country in the south (terra australis incognita), dating back to the time of Roman civilization, indicates that a similar place was also found in the Middle Ages. However, this information does not contain any known continent information. The Latin term Terra Australis Incognita; The Unknown (Incognita) in the south (Australis) means the piece of land (Terra).

On May 14, 1606, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, who set foot in Vanuatu, claimed that all land ownership in the South Pole belonged to the Kingdom of Spain and named the continent Austrialía del Espíritu Santo.

The Dutch word Australische was used by the Dutch in Batavia before 1638 to designate new places discovered in the south. The first use of the word “Australia” in the English language was seen in the 1693 translation of the French novel Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe written by Gabriel de Foigny in 1692.[10]

Later, in 1765, Alexander Dalrymple used the word when he translated into English a book by Luis Váez de Torres in which he described his 1606 voyage to the south coast of New Guinea. Dalrymple also used the word Australia to describe the entire Oceania region in his An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771). In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which definitions of the large island, the great continent, Australia, Australasia and New Holland were made.

The name Australia was made popular by explorer Matthew Flinders’ A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814), the first known human to circumnavigate the continent by ship. Despite the name reflecting the perspective of the British Kingdom, he used the name Flinders Australia in his work, and this name became a widely spoken term. The governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, later used the name in written messages he sent to England. In 1817 Macquarie proposed the official adoption of this name, and in 1824 the British Kingdom approved the continent to be officially recognized as Australia.


The Australian States are located on the Indo-Australian plate with an area of ​​7,617,930 km2. It is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans and is separated from the Asian continent by the Arafura Sea and the Timor Sea. Along the Queensland coast in the Northeast lies the Coral Sea. Between Australia and New Zealand is the Tasman Sea. Australia, the 7th largest country in the world in terms of land size, is sometimes called the “island continent”. The Australian mainland has 34,218 kilometers of coastline. Besides, it claims an Exclusive economic zone of 8,148,250 km2 in Antarctica. This area does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. Except for Macquarie Island, Australia, at 9th south latitude and 44th south latitude; It is located between the 112th east longitude and the 154th east longitude. The Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef, is located just off the north-east coast, with a length of more than 2000 kilometers. Mount Augustus in Western Australia is the world’s largest monolith. Located on the Great Dividing Range, Mount Kosciuszko is the highest mountain on mainland Australia at 2228 metres. Even taller, Mawson Peak, at 2745 meters, is located on Heard Island off the mainland, while Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies are located in the Australian Antarctic Territory, at 3492 and 3355 meters, respectively.

The size of Australia has given it different climates and landscapes over the same country. While tropical rainforests are found in the north-east, there are mountainous areas in the south-east and south-west regions, and arid plains in the center. Australia, which has the oldest and most unproductive lands, also has the feature of being the flattest continent. Desert or semi-arid lands – also known as the Outback – make up the majority of the land. It is the driest inhabited continent in the world with an annual precipitation of 500 mm.  2.8 people per square kilometer brings it to the last place in terms of population density.  A large part of the population lives in the south-east where the temperate climate prevails.

Eastern Australia is separated from each other by the Great Dividing Range. This mountain range runs parallel to the coastlines of the states of Quensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. Although it is called a mountain range, the majority of the terrain it actually passes consists of low hills and plateaus whose height does not reach 1600 meters. The coastal highlands and Brigalow meadows are sandwiched between the coast and the mountain, while the interior of the mountain range consists of wide grasslands. These grasslands include the western plains of New South Wales and the Queensland interior of the Einasleigh Uplands, Barkly Tableland and Mulga Lands. The northernmost point of the east coast is the Cape York Peninsula, covered with tropical rainforest.

Climatic zones of australia
Climatic zones of australia


Ethnic structure
the ethnic distribution

of Australia; 37.13%

native, 31.65%

English, 9.08%

Irish, 7.56%

Scottish, 4.29%

Italian, 4.09%

German, 3.37%

Chinese, 1.84%




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