(Greek: Ελλάδα, About this soundElláda (help info) Greek pronunciation: [eˈlaða]) or officially the Hellenic Republic (formerly Hellas, Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ellinikí Dimokratía, Greek pronunciation: [eliniˈki] ði. It is a country located in Europe. The country’s largest city and capital is Athens, with a population of approximately 10.7 million as of 2021. Bordered by Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast, the Aegean Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean to the south, Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa.
Despite its long history, modern Greece is a fairly young country, founded in 1830. The city-states in classical Greece are considered the cradle of Western civilization as the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, important scientific and mathematical principles, theater and the Olympic Games.
These city-states After being conquered by Philip, Alexander the Great brought Greek civilization with his armies to the Middle East, creating the common cultural space where Christianity would later emerge and spread. Annexed by Rome in the second century BC, Greece became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, dominated by the Greek language and culture. Greece, which came under Ottoman rule in the mid-fifteenth century, emerged as a modern nation-state in 1830, after 500 years of Ottoman rule.
Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and a developed high-income country. Its economy is the largest in the Balkans, where it is a major regional investor. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (the precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It also has many international organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the International Francophonie Organization (OIF). is a member.
Greece is a country of mountains and islands. The largest islands in the country are Crete, Euboea, Lesbos and Rhodes, respectively. Continental Greece is dominated by the Pindus Mountains, an extension of the Dinaric Alps in the north. Pindus divides Greece into the western region with high precipitation and the eastern region with low precipitation. The highest mountain is Mount Olympus, which is the legendary home of the ancient gods and is 2917 meters high. Other important mountain ranges are the Rhodopes in the north and the Peloponnesian Mountains in the south. There are two main plains, one in Thessaly and the other in Central Macedonia. Greece has no navigable rivers; the longest river is Aliakmonas in the north. Other major rivers are Meriç, Mesta, Struma and Vardar. İnformations about Greece
Bounded by the Aegean Sea in the east, the Mediterranean in the south and the Ionian Sea in the west, in the central and southern parts of Greece, oleander, red pine, myrtle, laurel, oak, olive and juniper trees grow in the Mediterranean climate, while the high areas in the north and west are dominated by oak trees. including broad-leaved forests.Forest areas cover about one-fifth of the country’s land.
Main article: Types of climates in Greece
The predominant climate in Greece is largely Mediterranean: summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainy.
In the country, where the winters are harsher in the north and interior parts, the effect of warm, humid, westerly winds is observed in winter. Bora blowing from the north often causes cold air waves.
During the summer, the temperature changes according to the wind direction: Siroko, blowing from the southwest, can raise the temperature to over 40 °C, while the Etezian blowing from the northwest lowers the temperature and humidity.
The annual average precipitation generally decreases from west to east and from north to south under the influence of the Pindus Mountains. The annual precipitation amounting to 1320 millimeters in Corfu, which is located in the northwest, where the rainfall is the highest, is 400 mm in Athens and 640 mm in Crete. around.
Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic. The current constitution, introduced in 1975 following the collapse of the 1967-74 military dictatorship, initially gave the president substantial powers, but revisions to the constitution in 1986 made presidential powers largely ceremonial. The President, who is the head of state, is elected by the unicameral Greek Parliament (Βουλή, Vouli) and can serve two terms of five years.
The Prime Minister is the head of government and has broad powers, but must be able to manage the confidence of the legislature. Second, the unicameral Greek Parliament consists of 300 deputies directly elected for a four-year term; has the power to amend the constitution. Voting is mandatory. A distinctive feature of the Greek electoral system is the practice by incumbent governments to amend the electoral law to suit their own political advantages. However, another round of constitutional revisions in 2001 introduced greater transparency in political operations and safeguards against political abuses.
Many elements of traditional politics, particularly the personality-based nature of the party system, remained in Greece. Parties depend heavily on the charisma of their leaders, and patronage is important at all levels.
Greeks constitute 95% of the population, which was 10,682,547 in the 2021 census. The majority of the population consists of the Greek-Christian Orthodox population, including 1.5 million Karamans and Gagauz, who came to the country from Turkey with the 1924 population exchange that took place as a result of the 1923 Lausanne Treaty.
The only minority officially recognized by the Greek government is the Muslim minority, whose existence was recognized in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. However, the population of Greece includes those who identify themselves as Turks (0.9%), Macedonians (1.5%), Albanians (0.6%) and Gypsies living in Western Thrace, Crete and the Dodecanese.
Among the neighboring countries, only Southern Cyprus, Albania and Turkey have Greek communities that can be mentioned. On the other hand, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Argentina and Australia host a sizable Greek immigrant community.
The average age of rapidly aging Greece was 45.6 in 2020, with 13.66% of the population aged 65 and over, 64.06% between the ages of 15-64 and 22.28% under 14 years old.  The rapid aging of the country is associated with a decrease in the fertility rate to 1.41.
Greece also has a population of illegal immigrants trying to enter the European Union. Afghans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis constitute the majority of illegal immigrants entering Lesbos, Chios, Kos and Samos, as well as the Meriç River on the Turkish border. 10.682.547
The Greek language is one of the oldest Indo-European languages with written text, and its oldest written form (Linear B) dates back to the 15th century BC. Koine (Ελληνιστική Κοινή, Ellinistikí Kiní), the language of the New Testament, and Byzantine Greek represent the middle stages of Greek. These eventually gave way to Modern Greek (Ελληνικά, Elliniká) in the 19th century (continuing to be used by the Koine Greek Orthodox Church). Modern Greek consists of various regional dialects, such as Standard Modern Greek and Chakon (τσακώνικα), Pontic (Ποντιακή διάλεκτος, Pontiakí diálektos; Pontic Greek: Ρωμαίικα Roméika) and Cappadocian (Καπαδοκιάοκιά).
Standard Modern Greek is the official state language and is a mixture of two historical forms: the widely spoken Demotiki (Δημοτική, Dimotikí) and the originally written, deliberately likened Catharevusa (Καθαρεύουσα, Katharévousa) that appeared in official government documents and newspapers until the mid-1970s. ).
Although not officially recognized, minority languages spoken in the country include Turkish, Macedonian, Albanian, Arvanit, Bulgarian, Romani, and Megleno-Romanian spoken by Albanians who migrated to the region from Albania in the 15th century.